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Your dog may be the apple in your eyes, but to be honest: she is an animal, has her own intuition and qualities, and sometimes makes her want to tear her hair off.

However, no matter how much you want to do, new research suggests that you don't yell or otherwise punish naughty stupid people.

According to a study uploaded to the preprint server bioRxiv late last year, aversive training such as Active punishment with Negative reinforcement Can have long-term negative effects on your dog's mental state.

"Our results show that compared to companion dogs trained using reward methods, companion dogs trained using aversion-based methods have benefits, both in the short and long term." The researchers wrote in the paper.

"In particular, dogs in schools that use aversive methods show more stress-related behaviors and body postures during training, elevated cortisol levels after training, and better on cognitive bias tasks." pessimistic".

This research has been done before, And found that aversion training has a negative impact, but mainly for police dogs and experimental dogs. In addition, aversion training is often collar training, which is just one of several tools used.

So, led by biologist Ana Catarina Vieira de Castro at the University of Porto in Portugal, the international research team conducted new research on companion dogs.

The animals were recruited from multiple training schools in Porto, with 42 dogs in three schools using rewarding training [such as food or games] and 50 dogs in four schools receiving aversive training, such as large Yelling, body manipulation. Dog or pulling leash.

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Photograph each dog within the first 15 minutes of three training sessions and collect saliva samples to assess stress levels after training-each dog relaxes at home to establish a baseline level of stress hormone cortisol. Three of the dogs.

Researchers also analyzed dog behavior during training to look for stressful behaviors, such as yawning, licking lips, raising paws, and yelling.

Not surprisingly, dogs in aversion training exhibit higher stress behavior, especially yawning and licking lips. Cortisol levels in their saliva also increased significantly compared to when they were resting at home.

In contrast, positive fortified dogs are very cold-stress behavior is much less, and cortisol levels are much more normal.

The next step is to assess the long-term effects of this stress. One month after the dogs were evaluated during training, 79 of them were then trained to associate a bowl on one side of the room with a sausage snack. If the bowl is on that side, it will always provide delicious food. If on the other side, the bowl can never be enjoyed. [All bowls are wiped with sausage to ensure the smell does not make the game unattractive.]

The researchers then moved the bowl around the room to an ambiguous to see how fast the dog was looking for food. Higher speed is interpreted to mean that the dog expects a sip, and speed means that the dog is more pessimistic about the contents of the bowl.

Sure enough, the more aversion the dog receives, the slower it gets to the bowl. Interestingly, the dogs in the reward-based training group actually learned the bowl positioning task faster than the aversion-trained dogs.

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This suggests that reward-based training may actually be more effective, although researchers believe this may be because dogs already understand treatment-based training methods. If an aversion method is applied, another group may learn faster-more research is needed to determine this.

Overall, the results seem to suggest that aversion training is not necessarily an advantage over reward training, and reward training is much better for your dog's happiness.

"Very important" Researchers say"Our findings suggest that the welfare of companion dogs trained in offensive methods seems to be at risk."

Full text available at Biological receptor Before peer review.

The version of this article was first published in November 2019.